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To the surprise of the government

Disturbing The Peace

canada goose outlet kokemuksia The nuclear deal with Iran never went before the American people for an up or down vote. Nor www.picframer.ca did it require two thirds support of the Senate, since it wasn’t technically a treaty. The effort to roll back Iran’s nuclear weapons program in exchange for the elimination of some sanctions faced a much more modest hurdle. It had to attract just enough votes to sustain the president’s threatened veto of any congressional attempt Canada Goose sale to kill the deal. And thus, Obama’s signature foreign policy success required the support of only 34 senators (it would eventually get 42 votes). canada goose outlet kokemuksia

canada goose outlet germany The Iran deal would have been dead in the water if it required two thirds or even majority support in the Senate since every Republican and a couple Democrats opposed the initiative. It’s hard to know what a referendum would have produced. A majority of Americans wanted the Republican controlled Congress to oppose the settlement, according toa CNN poll in late July cheap Canada Goose 2015. Another poll from Public Policy Polling at roughly the same time, however, found that 54 percent of Americans supported the deal and only 38 percent opposed it. A referendum could have gone either way. canada goose outlet germany

canada goose outlet england This weekend, voters in that country went to the polls to Canada Goose Parka decide the fate of a peace treaty to end half a century of conflict with leftist guerrillas in the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos gambled his political career on the latest round of peace negotiations, which took buy canada goose jacket cheap nearly canada goose coats six years. In a deft political cheap canada goose uk move, he decided to make sure that canada goose coats on sale the Colombian public accepted this important step forward canada goose clearance for the country. According to polls in September, voters favored the deal by a comfortably wide margin canada goose of two to one. canada goose outlet england

canada goose outlet ottawa But on Sunday, the “no” vote received 50.21 percent, just edging out the 49.78 percent who voted “yes.” canada goose outlet ottawa

canada goose jacket outlet It’s not the first time that voters canada goose clearance have weighed in on foreign policy matters in recent months in ways that have confounded pollsters and experts alike. Back in June, British voters decided, against all expectations, to pull the country out of the European Union. Shortly before that, Dutch voters rejected an EU trade deal with Ukraine. canada goose jacket outlet

canada goose outlet store new york And this weekend, Hungarian voters overwhelmingly said no to an EU plan to resettle refugees more equitably across the continent. Although 98 percent of those who voted in fact rejected the EU initiative, the referendum failed to attract sufficient numbers to make it valid. Rather than signal their pro EU or pro immigrant sentiments, many people simply stayed home. canada goose outlet store new york

canada goose outlet orlando It’s both principled and pragmatic to argue that people should be allowed to vote on matters that directly affect them. In the case of the Colombian peace deal, significant opposition to a deal pushed through from above could reawaken the underlying conflicts that sustained the civil war for so long. After all, that’s what happened with earlier attempts, such as the 1985 deal to bring the guerrillas into the political system. canada goose outlet orlando

canada goose outlet vancouver On the other hand, the UK, Hungary, and Colombia are Canada Goose Jackets representative democracies, not direct democracies. Because the tasks of government are many and varied, we elect people to represent our views as they carry out the duties of their office. The referendum, at least in the United States, serves as a check on our representatives if they shirk their responsibility. canada goose outlet vancouver

canada goose outlet boston But in the cases of Brexit, the Colombian peace deal, and Hungarian immigration, the governments sponsored the referenda. They were not checks on power, but appeals for legitimacy. canada goose outlet boston

canada goose outlet uk In all three cases, the negotiations that produced the deals in question were long and complicated. They required careful compromise and a full understanding of the risks of failure. Putting them up for referenda was the political equivalent of asking readers to giveWar and Peace a simple thumb’s up or down based on reading the blurb on the back cover or, worse, the ratings on Amazon. “Voters must make their decisions with relatively little information, forcing them to rely on political messaging which puts power in the hands of political elites rather than those of voters,” write Amanda Taub and Max Fisher in The New York Times. canada goose outlet uk

canada goose outlet black friday sale Given the outcome of these three referenda, should we rethink the way voters weigh in directly on matters of national security and international relations? canada goose outlet black friday sale

canada goose outlet eu The deal worked out between the Colombian government and the FARC was so detailed that it even spelled out what would happen to all the guns that the guerrillas were slated to hand in within canada goose uk black friday 180 days of the accord’s signing. According canada goose black friday sale to the plan, they would be melted down and turned into three monuments to be placed in Colombia, in New York at the UN headquarters, and in Cuba where the negotiations took place. canada goose outlet eu

canada goose outlet london uk These monuments of metal were the least controversial element of a document that has Canada Goose Outlet generated fierce partisan debate in Colombia. Opposition to the agreement, led by former president Alvaro Uribe, focused on three major components: transitional justice, political representation, and rural development. In the demobilization process, the vast majority of guerrillas would be amnestied and eligible for payments to help them transition to civilian life. The FARC would become a political Canada Goose Online party with a guaranteed bloc of five seats in both the Senate and House of Representatives in the next two elections in 2018 and 2022. Investment would flow to buy canada goose jacket farmers to persuade canada goose clearance sale them to stop growing lucrative narcotics. Compensation would canada goose factory sale also be available for those forced from their land by the insurgents. canada goose outlet london uk

canada goose outlet shop The deal is not just about moving on. It’s about reintegrating a country that has long been divided between an urban elite and the rural poor. According to an astute piece in The New York Times: canada goose outlet shop

canada goose outlet toronto location Rodrigo Uprimny, a professor at the National University and member of Dejusticia, a legal research institute, said Colombia lacked a national identity because of geography, strong regional identities and the absence of a modern foundational Canada Goose Coats On Sale myth. “We need a myth that is not aggressive but democratic,” he said. “And nothing is better than a peace agreement reached not through military triumph but as a result of dialogue and negotiation.” canada goose outlet toronto location

canada goose outlet 2015 Of course, a national myth can only function in this way if the population subscribes to it. The results of the recent referendum reveal that the country remains too divided even to agree to disagree. canada goose outlet 2015

canada goose outlet in uk For a fighting force that didn’t suffer a clear cut defeat on the battlefield, the terms of the deal were hard for the FARC to swallow. It was getting nothing out of the peace agreement that could constitute a clear win on any of the issues that propelled the struggle in uk canada goose outlet the first place. There would be no power sharing arrangement, much less a revolutionary transformation of system. The FARC would not control any territory or head up any institutions. Nor would there be any radical land reform to redistribute the holdings of large landowners to the poor and landless. True, the agreement would create a land fund, which the landless could access. But the fund would only contain unclaimed properties and those acquired illegally. canada goose outlet in uk

canada goose outlet winnipeg On the issue of transitional justice, however, FARC fighters could at least avoid imprisonment. Commentaries have zeroed in on this issue as the sticking point in the agreement. A slender majority of Colombian voters simply did not want to forgive a guerrilla force responsible for so much murder and mayhem over the years. canada goose outlet winnipeg

canada goose outlet real Yet most analyses of the agreement fail to point out that the same lenient terms would apply to both the guerrillas and the right wing paramilitaries and the government who were responsible for a fair share of atrocities. As Human Rights Watch points out: canada goose outlet real

canada goose jacket outlet store The agreement states categorically that perpetrators who confess to atrocities will be exempt not only from prison or jail, but also from any “equivalent” form of detention. They will instead be subject to “sanctions” that have canada goose uk shop a “restorative and reparative function” as opposed to a punitive one and entail carrying out “projects” to assist victims of the conflict. canada goose jacket outlet store

canada goose outlet new york There is no “war crimes” exemption in the agreement (though perpetrators who don’t confess and are found guilty could face significant jail time). For the many victims on both uk canada goose sides of the conflict, the price of peace was a high one. But the representatives of victims’ groups in the negotiations were willing to pay that price. Notes the Christian Science Monitor: canada goose outlet new york

canada goose outlet in canada During the talks, victims’ groups were at the table and were key to setting a tone of contrition on both sides, canada goose uk outlet and then advocating for a method of justice. To the surprise of the government, the victims were more interested in ending the war, learning the truth about their lost family members, and obtaining reparations than in imposing harsh penalties on those involved in violence. canada goose outlet in canada

canada goose outlet online uk Uribe, whose father had died at the hands of the FARC, was having none of this. He used the issue of criminal justice to rally the public against the agreement, but ultimately he was more interested in canada goose store defending entrenched interests. The oligarchs whose interests Uribe so passionately represented while in office don’t want to see even modest land reform. Nor do they want to see the ranks of the parliamentary left swelled by an influx of ex guerrilla voters. The oligarchs don’t want integration. They want elimination. canada goose outlet online uk

canada goose outlet houston “The personification of the ‘hard line approach’ to guerrillas, Uribe’s ideal tableau would be the total elimination of the leftist guerrillas, without being heard or considered in the fabrication of a new country” writes Juan Sebastian Chavarro of the Council on Hemispheric Affairs. “A true ally of Washington, and a representative of wealthy landowners, his radical approach and obvious discomfort with inclusive social reforms should not be surprising.” canada goose outlet houston

canada goose outlet store toronto No one is quite clear what happens next in Colombia. Both President Santos and the leader of the FARC, Rodrigo Londoo Echeverri, have pledged to keep the ceasefire and continue working toward a peaceful resolution. The guerrillas have already embarked on the gradual process of reintegration, holding family reunions and scheduling unprecedented interviews with the press. Santos has a parliamentary majority, and there is Canada Goose online still much good will associated with the negotiations process. Perhaps all that is needed to save the agreement are a much better get out the vote campaign and a few tweaks of the accord to gain the support of the more reasonable elements of the opposition. canada goose outlet store toronto

canada goose outlet legit The Hungarians, with their referendum process, had the good sense to canadian goose jacket require a 50 percent turnout to make the decision valid (though the government has decided to change the constitution to buck the EU). In Colombia, the turnout was about 38 percent, and yet that was enough to unravel the carefully constructed set of compromises. No doubt there are tens of thousands of pro deal Colombians who are deeply upset with themselves for not bothering to go to the polls. canada goose outlet legit

canada goose outlet factory But so were the majority of Americans, over 60 percent of whom supported the war just prior to the intervention in 2003. Wisdom is a rare commodity among both leaders and led canada goose outlet factory.

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